Thursday, September 3, 2020

Vietnam War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Vietnam War - Essay Example In U.S. eyes, the Vietnamese were an aloof and ignorant individuals, absolutely unready for self government (Herring, 13). A study of New York Times articles distributed during the First Indochina War uncovered that the U.S. international strategy examination, media and open overwhelmingly focused on the French point of view of the contention. Little consideration was given to the Vietminh point of view or to the viewpoint of the French sponsored legislature of South Vietnam. This perspective proceeded until 1949 when China's respectful war finished and the Communist assumed responsibility for China. Not long after taking control Mao Zedong, the Communist head recognized the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and the Soviet Union immediately stuck to this same pattern. From that point forward, the U.S. media set a more noteworthy accentuation on Cold War manner of speaking when managing Vietnam. As noticed, the Cold War outlook saturated quite a bit of American culture during this timeframe; it was a period of ideological accord, and this was valid most importantly in international strategy (Hallin, 50). At the finish of the First Indochina War, the U.S. ... From 1957-1961 the U.S. consideration moved vigorously on Vietnam's destiny according to the unrest in Laos and Cambodi just as to the Soviet danger. This discernment overwhelmed the popular assessment, media and U.S. international strategy well into President John F. Kennedy's Administration. THE VIETNAM WAR (1955-1975): ANALYSIS OF EVENTS On August 5, 1964, Congress thought about the Southeast Asia Resolution, generally called the Inlet of Tonkin Resolution (Johnson, 118). Following two days of discussion it passed the Senate by a vote of 88-2 and the House by a reverberating 416-0 (Johnson, 118). It was a goals to purposely permit the United States a wide hand in ensuring harmony and security in Southeast Asia. A subsequent segment attested that harmony and security in southeast Asia was essential to American national security and hence the president, acting as per the Charter of the United Nations and as an individual from the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), would make every fundamental step, including the utilization of outfitted power, to help part conditions of SEATO with regards to [their] opportunity (Young, 109). At long last, the goals would terminate when the president decided harmony and security had come back to the territory (Young, 109). It could likewise be ended by a resulting congressiona l goals. On March 8, 1965, 3,500 Marines arrived at Da Nang. In May the main United States Army units showed up (Westmoreland, 124). With air assaults against both North and South Vietnam being propelled from bases in the South, runways were a sensible objective for powers from the National Liberation Front, the Communist guerrillas battling against the South Vietnamese, and nobody set a lot of trust in the assurance from the powers of the Army of the Republic

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Why Accounting is highly subjective

Why Accounting is profoundly emotional Numerous researchers and scholars have upheld the idea of subjectivity in bookkeeping and have additionally utilized this idea has a contention against scholastics that have an alternate point of view to this conceptâ ¸ who believes bookkeeping to be objective. Morgan contended that bookkeeping/bookkeepers are constructors of the real world, abstract (Morgan, 1988, pg. 477) and they create and speak to circumstances in fiscal summaries with some level of subjectivity and uneven ways. This point of view or belief system was additionally bolstered by Ruth Hines, a source to the improvement of bookkeeping hypothesis, who utilized the idea of reality development to legitimize her view. She accepted that in imparting reality, we develop it (Hines, 1988, pg. 251). Subsequently, bookkeeping is socially built, which implies it is prepared by individuals, people or social orders on the loose. Anyway these were sees that positivists, David Solomons and Rob Bryer didn't bolster. Bryer utilized Marxs hypothesis of work procedure to contend that target bookkeeping lies at the center of entrepreneur control of present day business ventures (Bryer, 2006, pg. 42). Likewise, Solomons had a progressively extreme view by recommending that bookkeepers ought to resemble writers (Solomons, 1991, pg. 287). He clarifies that bookkeepers ought to report the news as it occurs, not manufacture it to be the truth or full image of an occasion; however do we comprehend what the truth is?, how and when do we recognize what the valid and reasonable perspective on an occasion is without having a recorded foundation?, would we be able to depend on it?. These are sees that will likewise be investigated over the span of this assessment. As a matter of first importance, what is bookkeeping? The American Accounting Association characterizes bookkeeping as the way toward recognizing, estimating and imparting monetary data to allow educated decisions and choices by clients regarding the data (Porter Norton, 2009, pg. 11). The historical backdrop of present day bookkeeping goes back to 1494, when Luca Pacioli composed a book on twofold section accounting. During the years that followed, bookkeeping and the bookkeeping calling needed hypothetical information backing them up'(Kyriacou 2010, lecture3, slide8) to diminish equivocalness. Consequently, because of the budgetary outrages during the 1920s that lead to the incredible gloom at that period, GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) was framed in the in the late 1930s to control and manage the bookkeeping. A long time after GAAP was shaped, SSAP2 was framed in 1971 to fill in as a directional device for bookkeeping and the bookkeeping calling with the blend of different ideas and shows: Going, collections, reasonability and consistency, acknowledgment, objectivity, materiality, cash estimation, element and duality. Anyway after the ASB survey, SSAP2 decreased them to four which shaped C.A.P.G (Going, gatherings, consistency and reasonability). SSAP2 likewise settled more approaches on stock, devaluation, resources and so on. In spite of SSAP2s exertion to offer significance to bookkeeping customs, bookkeeping was as yet done dependent on the duality idea since bookkeepers didn't have the foggiest idea why bookkeeping was rehearsed the manner in which it was. Therefore, the thought of a calculated structure was presented by the FASB (Federal Accounting Standards Board), to assemble different thoughts that emerged a very long time after the rise of SSAP2, to give bookkeeping a superior comprehension. At the end of the day, applied system is essentially a major bookkeeping reference book, where you will discover rules, hypotheses, terms and rules that have been drawn together as the years pass by, to shape the bookkeeping calling and offer some looked for of significance to bookkeeping, overall. These Ideas incorporate The Corporate Report 1975, valid and reasonable view, SSAP2, bookkeeping ideas, 1991 Statements of Principle, and so forth. (Mathews Perera, 1996, 23-30). From history, it is apparent that bookkeeping has been molded by various thoughts, pictures and perspectives throughout the years by nations, researchers and the general public on the loose. Thoughts, for example, the True and Fair view; which is a major part in bookkeeping and all gave accounts, the proposal of six extra proclamations in the Corporate Report 1975 and furthermore the discussion among UK and USA on whether it is conceivable to acquire a calculated structure, or put hypotheses on occasions that has just happened subsequently applied system, which was the recommendation from the UK by teacher Macvae. Be that as it may, these thoughts just furnish us with differing stances of bookkeeping rehearses in general. All things considered, it is obvious that bookkeeping is socially developed and abstrac t simply like a craftsman is obliged to deliver a fractional perspective on the truth the person wishes to speak to (Morgan, 1988, pg. 477). Every one of these perspectives, discussions and philosophies were totally built by individuals for individuals for example bookkeeping bodies to bookkeepers, henceforth socially built. For instance, budget reports are developed by a budgetary bookkeeper dependent on their perspective on an organization, to a group of people that are outer. Be that as it may, the perspectives on such bookkeeper probably won't be the full image of the organization monetary position. Because of the false portrayal of the fiscal summaries, the result turns out to be profoundly emotional and moderately a one-sided perception of reality since bookkeepers subjectively consolidate and characterize, and include, and take away things in an alternate route to the regular way (Hines, 1988 pg. 254) While positivists such has Solomons recommends that the origination of lack of bias ,unbiasedness, ought to be central to bookkeeping and that bookkeepers ought to be fair-minded and announcing reality through their eyes, it makes one wonder whether reality can be confirmed or demonstrated? Furthermore, as clients, would it be a good idea for us to rely upon it without knowing why it is done in such manner? That is the motivation behind why unanswered inquiries like the above make phenomenologists like handyman can't help contradicting the thoughts of positivism way to deal with bookkeeping. They accept that individuals for example bookkeepers are not so much autonomous about their feelings and how they see reality in general. Moreover, Hines said that in conveying reality, we build it (Hines, 1988, pg.257) and offer significance to it. Thus, Reality to bookkeepers or in bookkeeping is deciphered diversely to non bookkeepers. This resembles the connection between a rancher and a chic ken. Reality to a rancher is to execute the chicken for Christmas festivity yet for the chicken the truth is experiencing childhood in the homestead and laying eggs. This model subsequently shows that the truth is deciphered in various manners however because of the way that bookkeepers are a gathering with power in the general public like the rancher, their build and make their existence authentic which we at that point need to accept and retain into our own general origination, since they fundamentally yelled the most intense. In any case, as I would see it, I think the truth is out there but since we are restricted to following the perspectives and assessments presented in bookkeeping, we wont have the option to discover reality however rather hold up until something terrible has occurred in the bookkeeping calling simply like the money related emergency and disappointments that occurred in large associations like Lehman Brothers (Swedberg, 2010, 71-114), and question objectivity in bookkeeping. This takes us back to the rancher and chicken outline. Since the chicken is accustomed to doing likewise; wakeup, eat, stroll around, lay eggs and rest ordinarily during the year, such chicken would not recognize what the truth is on the grounds that the chicken is utilized to a similar method of living however when Christmas comes the chicken gets executed. At that point, inquiries will be posed to whether the manner in which the chicken has been living since the start of the year is reality or being executed during Christmas? Enough of my chicken outline and back to my assessment. Moreover monetary disappointments in large associations have made non-bookkeepers increasingly mindful of the noteworthy effect of bookkeeping in their lives and the jobs they play to shape bookkeeping. In this way, because of the issues in the bookkeeping calling, there have been hypothetical systems made to give arrangements and control in the calling. So what is hypothesis? Hypothesis can be characterized as a lot of interrelated builds, definitions and recommendations that present a methodical perspective on a phenomenawith the motivation behind clarifying and anticipating the marvels (Kerlinger, 1964, p.11). Nonetheless, since bookkeeping is a training based calling dissimilar to science, we can contend that applying hypothesis based framework into bookkeeping could be tricky even abstract. This is on the grounds that obtaining information expected to frame speculations, originates from various sources, for example, introspecting, ones observation, memory, confidence, instinct and so forth. Which are all abstract sources. To have the option to gain information, the procedure of acceptance is utilized. The procedure begins from perception, which is the inductive way to deal with build up a law or hypothesis. When the law has been passed, it would then experience the deductive methodology were it would be tried. Anyway there have been banters about how speculations are created. Besides, a few researchers proposed that it is through the inductive methodology and others state it is through the deductive methodology but since key bookkeeping speculations, for example, reasonable worth and deterioration have all been created through the inductive thinking process, it is protected to state that these hypotheses are extremely abstract. Reason being, not all circumstances, occasions or conditions watched are objective; rather they are biased and give a wrong image of what the eyewitness sees. This along these lines repeats Hiness recognition that when we impart reality, we make it (Hines, 1988, p.g 251). Throughout the years, the detectable truth of equivocalness and vulnerability in bookkeeping ideas has been the subject of discussion between bookkeeping analysts. Aside from the idea of reality development and bookkeeping hypothesis arrangement, these discussions have been based on the foundation of budget reports: the valid

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ancient Peruvian Ceramics Essays - Andean Civilizations, Cupisnique

Old Peruvian Ceramics The first stoneware pieces found in Peru were made somewhere close to 1500 and 1000 b.p. The pieces were found in the focal Andean locale where a strict clique lived. This faction was called Chav?n, after the most popular stately focus, Chav?n de Hu?ntar. The strict focus was the home to monstrous sanctuaries that were exceptionally decorated with low help models of divine beings, creatures, and images. The stoneware found in the zone where vessels that were all around made and exceptionally embellished with a comparable theme as the sanctuaries. Yet, the development of Peruvian earthenware turns out to be to some degree befuddling and complex after this first human advancement of potters. There is a division of individuals into the North Coast and the South Coast. The split made two styles of earthenware, albeit comparable, they never fully combine. I am just going to discuss the north coast conventions. On the North coast there are five societies that advance into the prevailing Mochica style, which was one of the most enthusiastic and prosperous societies of Ancient Peru. The following most punctual North Coast style, other than the Chav?n, began with the Cupisnique individuals in the Chicama valley. Their earthenware production firmly looked like those of good country Chav?n. They were very much made and cleaned, however to some degree thick walled and substantial. The kind of terminating utilized created a dull semireduced product that changed from tanish dark to carbon dark in shading. Adornment comprised of striking, curvilinear human, cat, and flying creatures of supplicate heads, eye designs, pelt markings, and other brief images of geometric gadgets. In the valley toward the south of the Cupisnique were the Salinar individuals who at some point during the fifth century b.p. moved into the north shoreline of Peru and spread its impact all through the Cupisnique region. Salinar stoneware, however misleadingly crude in ornamentation, was innovatively better than that of the Cupisnique. Vessels were made of decidedly ready dirts that were completely oxidized in terminating, making them an even orange shading. Cream and red slips were utilized to emphasize sculptural structures and make level geometric examples, however not to draw metaphorical themes. The specialized advances of the controlled oxidation terminating and slip enrichment before long had their impact on contemporary Cupisnique pottery. Personally, I delighted in the container structures they utilized with their twofold tie handles that lead from the shoulder of the structures to the one focal spout. (see figures 1 and 2). This style of vessel appears to proceed consistently. Three different societies in north coast valleys contributed their ceramics style to the over all Cusisnique style that was advancing into the Mochica style. These individuals were the Gallinazo, Recuay, what's more, Vic?s. The Gallinazo developed twofold chamber vessels with whistle spouts what's more, a sort of enrichment called negative beautification where they painted their straightforward plans on after the pieces were terminated. The Recuay additionally had twofold chamber vessels yet these made them work spout and one etched, typically an creature or figure. They additionally utilized negative beautification yet theirs were considerably more expound plans than the Gallinazo vessels. The Vic?s lived in the good countries on the Ecuadorian outskirt. They made exceptionally sculptural vessels with a stirrup handle and focal spout. (see figures 3, 4, and 5) Although a handfull of Vic?s relics have been discovered, not much is thought about these individuals, yet one can see a noticeable association between these various societies and the Mochica style that advanced out of them. The Mochica human advancement thrived for about 1000 years and as time passed slight changes in the style could be seen and are sequentially isolated into Mochica I-V. The initial two are developmental stages with bunches of experimentation. The third focused on a particular workmanship style, which proceeded through the forward and step by step declined in the fifth. They communicated numerous parts of their way of life and day by day life in their earthenware production. Things like warriors, sprinters (individuals who run packs of beans were essential to the stately life), representations, religion, divine beings, and creatures were appeared on vessels. Mochica I was a solid continuation of the late Cupisnique sculptural style. The structures are smaller with little recommendation of activity, and subtleties are regularly rendered in etched lines. Countenances are summed up, however singular personages are separated by outfit and embellishments, and by unmistakable physical characteristics. The style was not detailed. Some slip painting was done and the basic plans were here and there emphasized by etched lines. The structures are like those of the Salinar, yet they here and there utilized the geometric structures of the Recuay. In Mochica II they aced the specialty of slip enrichment and oxidation terminating. The ornamentation

Passing Places and Trainspotting

Passing Places and Transporting. They play I am breaking down Is Passing Places, by Stephen Greenhorn. It is a Scottish play from 1998 which Is set In Motherly. Close by with this, I will likewise examinations the film ‘Transporting', a film coordinated by Danny Bayle dependent on the novel ‘Transporting' by Irvine Welsh. First I will concentrate on the shopping center characters In the few works and examinations their advancement all through the play and the film. A short time later I will look at the play and film, and how they each delineate Scotland. In the Scottish play Passing Places, the fundamental characters are the two young men Alex and Brian.Of those two characters, Alex is the person who grows most during the play. To start with he is forceful, irate and extreme, and has only abhor towards his old neighborhood Motherly: ALEX: Look at this spot. Only shoe shops and burger bars. BRIAN: I'm starving. . It shows his sentiment of disappointment with his old neighb orhood, yet additionally with his life. It feels Like he needs to leave Motherly, In request to find what life truly Is. HIS life Is brimming with vacancy, the main relationship he has Is with Brian.Even his relationship with his mum Is poor: ALEX: No. Look. I Just need to leave for some time. Trust me. MUM: About to the extent I could toss you. All through he changes in a superior manner. He figures out how to unwind and finds the better sides of Scotland. He has accomplished a serenity, which maybe is a consequence of his gathering with Mirror. Brian is Ale's closest companion. He is more cunning than Alex, increasingly reasonable and progressively mindful of the â€Å"other side† of Scotland. He has a major information on Scotland and isn't reluctant to assault Alex with realities during their ride through Scotland.Just as Alex, he is likewise looking for something other than the dividers of Motherly. He realizes that there are better things, and utilizations the taken sur fboard as n reason to flee from Motherly. On their excursion, he meets individuals who are Just similar to him. From the outset It's Loan, however later It's especially Frank the Shaper, who makes him authenticity that there are others like him. They have made a PC program, yet in addition an entire lifestyle that gives Brian the fulfillment he has been looking for. Grain needs to do the equivalent thing.In the film ‘Transporting', the principle character is a youthful heroin someone who is addicted living in Elite, called Mark Rent. He has a genuine medication propensity, and resort to shoplifting and negligible robbery because of his joblessness: RENT: Choose your future. Pick life†¦ But for what reason would I need to do a thing like that? I decided not to pick life. I picked something different. What's more, the reasons? There are no reasons. Who needs reasons when you have heroin? 3 Mark really goes to Aberdeen college before the account start, yet dropped out and tr uly hit the medications when his debilitated sibling kicks the bucket In hospital.As an individual he Is extremely fantastic, pained, sharp, and as a watcher no one can tell where you are with him †he never knows where he Is himself. He really figured out how to dispose of his heroin dependent, moved to London to begin another life and working together. In any case, with his old companions. Hence, he closes pop engaging in a medication arrangement and sells 4 kilos of heroin. He at that point escapes with the cash from his â€Å"friends†, which Just shows that he has changed into a superior individual and has chosen to pick life, rather than living in the quick lane.Both works portrays the dim sides of Scotland to start with, just to end it up by giving the peruser/watcher a decent impression of Scotland. Every one of them three aren't generally pleased with being Scottish when the story begins: Mark Rent: It's Shiite being Scottish. We're the dregs of society! The rubbi sh of the kicking earth! 4 Mark communicates obviously that he isn't pleased with being Scottish. On the off chance that you take a gander at Alex and Brian, their method of talking and living can be viewed because of the town they have been carried fly to. They are, in a specific way, indifferent about everything.It is unmistakably outlined in scene 29: ALEX: I can't. I can figure it however I can't state it. It's Just It's not part of my language, okay? 5 Alex can't state the word excellent in light of the fact that during his immaturity in Motherly, he hasn't seen any indications of magnificence. The executive uses, particularly Alex, to analysis the advanced huge urban areas. The raises the complexity of magnificence in the scene and offensiveness in the towns. ‘Transporting' shows a portion of very similar things, UT obviously raises the issue of the rising utilization of medications in Scotland, principally in the bigger cities.In the film and play the same, the primary characters experience a positive turn of events. They go from being grieved and upset in the huge urban communities of Scotland, to better people when they leave the places where they grew up. Both the sentiment of being Scottish and the Scottish society are reprimanded. As a peruser, you get the feeling that the Scottish society is loaded up with ill-advised practices and a rising medication misuse. So as to find the excellence of Scotland or to live, you need to move to scenes or significantly another nation.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Concept of Marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Idea of Marriage - Essay Example Individuals in numerous African nations keep on rehearsing polygamy and as indicated by researchers, occurrences of polygamy or plural marriage are most elevated in West Africa, where Senegal and Ghana have the â€Å"highest level of polygamy† at somewhere in the range of 30 and half all things considered (Hayase and Liaw 300). Regardless of the insights, on a worldwide scale, the conventional marriage between one man and one lady is the most widely recognized type of marriage. Defenders of conventional marriage contend that marriage is a foundation which has stood the trial of time and is an essential social organization. They accept that marriage between one man and one lady fills an assortment of social needs including the reproduction of kids, the foundation of a â€Å"stable family unit for bringing up children† and the advancement of the family unit. They likewise build up that â€Å"children need both a male and female parent for appropriate development† (Kolasinski 3). Besides, numerous supporters for customary marriage likewise contend that homosexuality isn't right and ought not be energized by society. By presenting the privilege to marriage and the advantages of this association on same-sex couples, they contend that is actually what society is doing. Promoters for gay marriage vehemently contend that it is a social equality issue and since marriage offers certain social advantages, denying gays the option to wed encroaches on their privileges to correspondence. They further contend that marriage isn't characteristically attached to reproduction and point to instances of managed impregnation to demonstrate that lesbian couples can likewise conceive an offspring and back youngsters. It is likewise contended that common associations †in lieu of real marriage †miss the mark regarding the fairness standard and advance the possibility that equivalent sex marriage is both discrete and inconsistent. The Supreme Court in Canada as of late struck down the Marriage Act in light of the fact that it was illegal and comparable difficulties are being made

SAO to the OCS in the IAB COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

SAO to the OCS in the IAB COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog SIPA, like most organizations, is not immune to acronyms and slang.   The title for this entry might sound like a line from a rap song. It would not be uncommon to hear something like the following around our building: After I got out of my SAO appointment I had to drop by OCS to talk about my EPD project and integration of my APEA work.   Then I had to get to the penthouse of IAB and for my PMF meeting and you know what thats like during rush hour.   To top it all off, the elevator was lit up like a Christmas tree. Translation . . . After I got out of my Student Affairs Office appointment I had to drop by the Office of Career Services to talk about my Economic and Political Development project and integration of my Advanced Policy and Economic Analysis work.   Then I had to get to the 15th floor of the International Affairs Building and for my Presidential Management Fellows meeting you know what thats like during the change between classes.   To top it all off, every single button in the elevator had been pressed meaning we would have to stop on all floors on the way up. Speaking of OCS, they send out a weekly newsletter and here are just some highlights from the recent edition: OCS Highlights of the Week • Need help funding your internship abroad? Let OCS help you! See page 4 for more details. • Please share your employment news with OCS by using our new Report a Hire feature on SIPAlink. See page 3 for details. Dean’s Breakfast Series: Chris Osborne, CEO of Troika Dialog USA The Deans Office and the Office of Career Services announce the sixth in a series of breakfast and career conversations with prominent professionals. Please join us for breakfast and a career conversation with Mr. Chris Osborne, CEO of Troika Dialog USA, and Dean John Coatsworth on Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8:00 to 9:00am in 1501 IAB. Overseas Security and Abduction Prevention (OSAP) Seminar Back by popular demand, the SIPA Office of Career Services presents The MASY Groups Overseas Security and Abduction Prevention (OSAP) Seminar for students of International/Public Affairs, Business and Journalism who are destined for Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflict or high risk areas. Space is limited. The event will take place in the OCS Conference Room on Thursday, April 15, 2010, from 2:00 to 3:00pm.Register on SIPALink and please send a 50 word e-mail statement of need to: by Monday, April 12, 2010. Social Media: Networking to Advance Your Career Topics include: The differences between personal and business social media. Engaging your business network using social media. Business networking net-iquette. Wednesday, May 5, 2010 151 East 25th Street , 7th Floor (between Lexington and 3rd Ave.) Registration 5:00 PM To RSVP: Please go online to and click on the event Sponsored by the Baruch College Alumni Relations Office, SPA Alumni Committee, and SPA Career Services Office. SIPASA Happy Hour, Sponsored by OCS SIPASA, OCS and the Alumni Relations Office invite you to your final happy hour on Tuesday, April 20, 2010. Come grab one last drink, network, and share your work experience and your future plans in NYC, DC, and beyond! In preparation for the happy hour, please provide us with any of your past experience and your career plan that you wish to share by completing the form through this link: Chris Hill MPA Internship Grant SIPASA is pleased to honor the life of former MPA student, Christopher Hill, with a scholarship fund for continuing MPA students undertaking public interest summer internships with government or nonprofit organizations. Christopher died in March 2000, while still studying at SIPA, after a courageous battle with cancer. Christopher’s friends and family created and funded the first year of the scholarship. MPASA fundraised to continue the scholarship in subsequent years. SIPASA took over this scholarship in 2007 with the merger of MPASA into SIPASA. The Dean of SIPA continues to match any funds raised by students for this scholarship.

Friday, June 5, 2020

Theology and Childrens Literature Understanding The Magicians Nephew - Literature Essay Samples

Though written primarily for a young audience, C.S. Lewis’s fiction overflows with Biblical allusion and religious imagery. A Lewis narrative, indeed, becomes a vessel through which he is able to infuse his writing with his own complex theological ideology. This is evident in the events of his children’s novel The Magician’s Nephew; through the use of Biblical parallels woven throughout this work of fiction, Lewis offers a window into his own perceptions of God as well as the nature of evil. Chapter Nine of The Magician’s Nephew, titled â€Å"The Founding of Narnia,† serves in many ways as an allegory for the creation story found in Genesis. Aslan, who serves as a symbol of God within the world of Narnia, sings creation into life and eventually appoints the Cabby and his wife as the King and Queen of Narnia—a parallel to the appointment of Adam and Eve as the rulers over the rest of the animals in the world. However, beyond simply outlining parallels between the founding of Narnia and the creation story, Lewis uses these parallels as a way of making rather bold yet subtle claims about the nature of God. Lewis does not simply leave Aslan as the creator; he bestows him with a character that reflects Lewis’s own understanding of who God is. For instance, his selection of the Cabby to rule implies far more than the creation of a generic man to fill the role of Adam; Aslan is illustrating his preference for choosing the humble and the seemingly unq ualified to lead. The Cabby himself acknowledges his seeming incompetence for the rule of king, for he replies to Aslan’s declaration with the remark, â€Å"Begging your pardon, sir†¦ but I ain’t no sort of chap for a job like that. I never ‘ad much eddycation, you see† (151). This is a clear example of the Christian understanding of God’s â€Å"choosing the weak to lead the strong.† Through this, Lewis is suggesting a God that goes against people’s expectations and raises up the humble and meek rather than those that appear to be the best suited for power. As the characters continue to interact with the Lion, Lewis goes on to paint the character of Aslan—and therefore, the character of God—a proponent of forgiveness and redemption. He explains that he has chosen Cabby and his wife as the King and Queen of Narnia because he wishes that, â€Å"as Adam’s race has done the harm, Adam’s race shall help to heal it† (148). Instead of expelling man from Narnia as the nefarious foreigners who brought evil to a newly created world, he uses them, despite their flaws, to help protect and restore the now broken world. Lewis’s choice to portray Aslan in this way speaks volumes about his own conception of the nature of God. To further this idea, Lewis also strays slightly from the story of Genesis to allow Digory two encounters with symbols of Eden; one in which he, like Adam and Eve, gives into temptation, and another in which Aslan, in full knowledge of Digory’s previous failure, gives him an opportu nity for redemption by sending him to fetch the apple. In both of these instances, Lewis is making a rather bold assertion about the nature of God as being one of second chances and redemption rather than portraying a God who is wrathful in response to man’s sinfulness. Lewis is also suggesting a very particular view of God in the scene where Digory asks Aslan for a cure for his mother. Lewis writes that, â€Å"great shining tears stood in the Lion’s eyes. They were such big, bright tears compared with Digory’s own that for a moment he felt as if the Lion must really be sorrier about his Mother than he was himself† (154). Here, Lewis is suggesting of God an unparalleled capacity for grief and empathy at the sorrows of man. Aslan’s tears convey Lewis’s belief in God as a personal God who feels the pain of his people, perhaps even more than the people themselves. The final chapters of The Magician’s Nephew, beyond reflecting Lewis’s views on the character of God, has roots in Lewis’s own individual relationship to him. When Digory approaches Aslan, he does so with the sole intention of seeking a cure for his mother, much in the same way that Lewis himself does as a child. In Surprised by Joy, he recounts â€Å"what some†¦might regard as [his] first religious experience† (20), in which he turns to prayer to produce a miracle that will cure his dying mother. Lewis writes that he, â€Å"approached God, or my idea of God, without love, without awe, without even fear. He was, in my mental picture of this miracle, to appear neither as a Savior nor as a Judge, but merely as a magician†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (21). Digory, similarly, first approaches Aslan with an almost identical motivation. Digory tells Polly, â€Å"I must speak to him†¦ It’s about Mother. If anyone could give me something that would do her good , it would be him† (131). Digory, prior to speaking to Aslan, has no desire to interact with him beyond achieving a cure for his mother. In this way, Lewis uses Digory almost as a mirror image of himself, and through him, he illustrates the learning of a lesson that Lewis himself did not realize until much later in his life. When Digory finally comes face to face with the Lion, Digory finds that he is â€Å"much bigger and more beautiful and more brightly golden and more terrible than he had thought† (146). Here, he begins to develop a capacity for the kind of awe and fear that both Lewis and Digory initially have, and â€Å"realize[s] in time that the Lion was not at all the sort of person one could try to make bargains with† (153). Lewis also uses the latter half of this story to grant insight into his view of God in relation to the nature of evil, largely through the character of Uncle Andrew. For example, when Aslan begins his song, Lewis writes that Uncle Andrew’s â€Å"shoulders were stooped and his knees shook. He was not liking the Voice† (108), and goes on to describe how Uncle Andrew talked himself out of being able to hear the animal’s voices as speech, remarking that, â€Å"the trouble about trying to make yourself stupider than you really are is that you very often succeed† (137). Here, Lewis is implying both that evil cannot stand to be in the presence of good, and that to distance oneself from truth and God is a choice rather than a punishment for sin. Uncle Andrew becomes unable to hear and understand Aslan not because Aslan made it so, but because Uncle Andrew talked himself into a false perception of the truth until he was wholly unable to hear things as they truly we re. Aslan does not, at any point in the story, bring punishment upon Uncle Andrew; instead, he remarks, â€Å"I cannot comfort him either; he has made himself unable to hear my voice†¦ Oh Adam’s sons, how cleverly you defend yourselves against all that might do you good! But I will give him the only gift he is still able to receive† (185). Through this remark, Lewis is suggesting that man is at fault for his inability to hear God, and that God gives to whatever extent a person can receive.